|Gwadar is a district along the sea in the south of the Makran. The coastline of Gwadar District is about 600 Kilometers long. Gwadar was notified as a District in July 1977 with its headquarter at Gwadar Town. Previously it used to be a part of Makran District.
Gwadar district is located from 25`-01` to 25`-45` North latitudes and from 61`-37` to 65`-15` east longitudes. It is bounded on the North by Kech and Awaran District. On the East by Lasbela District, on the south by the Arabia Sea and on the West by Iran. The total area of the district is 12,637 square kilometers. The district comprises of Gwadar and Pasni Sub-divisions:
Gwadar Port is a strategic warm-water deep-sea port developed jointly by the Government of Pakistan and the Government of China at a cost of USD $248 million. Before its development as a port city, the town was a fishing village.
In 2013, Gwadar Port operations were officially handed over to China. Under the contract with China, the port will be further developed into a full-scale commercial port, with an initial construction investment of $750 million. The port is said to be strategically important to China because it will enable China to more safely and reliably import oil. Currently, sixty percent of China’s oil must be transported by ship from the Persian Gulf to the only commercial port in China, Shanghai, a distance of more than 16,000 kilometers. The journey takes two to three months, during which time the ships are vulnerable to pirates, bad weather, political rivals, and other risks. Using Gwadar port instead will reduce the distance these ships must travel and will also enable oil transfers to be made year-round.
In February 2013, Iran announced it would set up a $4 billion oil refinery in Gwadar with an estimated capacity of about 400,000 barrels per day. According to the plan, the Iranians will also construct an oil pipeline between its territory and Gwadar to transport crude oil for processing.
Physical Features / Topography
The coastline of Gwadar District extends in an east-west direction and it is almost entirely desert.
The elevation of Makran coast range is upto about 1000 meters above the sea level.
In Gwadar District, the soil is of two types: alluvial soil and lithosols and rigosols. The valley of Dasht river in the western part of the district and the Kulanch valley in the north consist of alluvial soil. The mountainous area of the district is covered with lithosols and rigosols. Limestone, shale and sandstone are the main rocks involved in the formation of this area.
Rivers and Streams
The important rivers and streams in the district include Shadi Kaur, Swar and Dasth river with its tributaries Nilag and Daddeh.
The climate of Gwadar, elevated at 0-300 meters above sea level, is drying arid hot. It is placed in “warm summer and mild winter” temperature region. The oceanic influence keeps the temperature lower than that in the interior in summer and higher in winter. The uniformity of temperature is a unique characteristic of the coastal region in Balochistan.